The many-to-one communication nature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) leads to an unbalanced traffic distribution, and, accordingly, sensor nodes closer to the base station have to transmit more packets than those at the periphery of the network. This problem causes the nodes closer to the base station to deplete their energy prematurely, forming a hole surrounding the base station. This phenomenon is called the energy hole problem, and it severely reduces the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a cooperative power-aware routing algorithm for uniformly deployed WSNs. The proposed algorithm is based on the idea of replacing the constant transmission range of relaying sensor nodes with an adjusted transmission range, in such a way that each individual node consumes its energy smoothly. We formulate the dynamic transmission range adjustment optimization (DTA) problem as a 0-1 Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem (0-1 MCKP) and present a dynamic programming method to solve the optimization problem. Simulations confirm that the proposed method helps to balance the energy consumption of sensor nodes, avoiding the energy hole problem and extending the network lifetime.
- Dynamic programming
- Energy efficiency
- Routing protocol
- Wireless sensor networks
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering