A unique system that can sensitively assess the risk of chemical leukoderma by using murine tail skin

Machiko Iida, A. Tazaki, Yuqi Deng, Wei Chen, Ichiro Yajima, Lisa Kondo-Ida, Kazunori Hashimoto, Nobutaka Ohgami, Masashi Kato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Chemical leukoderma is a patchy hypopigmentation in the skin. Phenol derivatives such as raspberry ketone have been reported to cause the development of occupationally induced leukoderma. Recently, 2% (w/w) rhododenol, a reduced form of raspberry ketone used in a skin-lightning agent, also caused the development of leukoderma in >16,000 users, about 2% of all users, in Asian countries including Japan. However, a method for assessing the risk of leukoderma caused by 2% rhododenol has not been established despite the fact that the development of leukoderma caused by 30% rhododenol was previously shown in animal experiments. Establishment of a novel technique for risk assessment of leukoderma in humans caused by external treatment with chemicals is needed to prevent a possible future chemical disaster. This study demonstrated that external treatment with 2% rhododenol and the same concentration of raspberry ketone caused the development of leukoderma in murine tail skin without exception with significant decreases in the amount of melanin and number of melanocytes in the epidermis. Thus, a novel in vivo technique that can assess the risk of leukoderma caused by 2% rhododenol was developed. The unique technique using tail skin has the potential to prevent chemical leukoderma in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)713-718
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes



  • Chemical leukoderma
  • Raspberry ketone
  • Rhododenol
  • Risk assessment
  • Tail skin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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