Acoustic Probing for Estimating the Storage Time and Firmness of Tomatoes and Mandarin Oranges

Hidetomo Kataoka, Takashi Ijiri, Kohei Matsumura, Jeremy White, Akira Hirabayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper introduces an acoustic probing technique to estimate the storage time and firmness of fruits; we emit an acoustic signal to fruit from a small speaker and capture the reflected signal with a tiny microphone. We collect reflected signals for fruits with various storage times and firmness conditions, using them to train regressors for estimation. To evaluate the feasibility of our acoustic probing, we performed experiments; we prepared 162 tomatoes and 153 mandarin oranges, collected their reflected signals using our developed device and measured their firmness with a fruit firmness tester, for a period of 35 days for tomatoes and 60 days for mandarin oranges. We performed cross validation by using this data set. The average estimation errors of storage time and firmness for tomatoes were 0.89 days and 9.47 g/mm2. Those for mandarin oranges were 1.67 days and 15.67 g/mm2. The estimation of storage time was sufficiently accurate for casual users to select fruits in their favorite condition at home. In the experiments, we tested four different acoustic probes and found that sweep signals provide highly accurate estimation results.

Original languageEnglish
JournalUnknown Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sep 27

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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