This study describes two biosniffers to determine breath acetone and isopropanol (IPA) levels and applies them for breath measurement in healthy subjects and diabetic patients. Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) can reduce acetone and oxidize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH to NAD+) in a weak acid environment. NADH can be excited by 340 nm excitation lights and subsequently emit 490 nm fluorescence. Therefore, acetone can be measured by the decrease in NADH fluorescence intensity. S-ADH can also oxidize IPA and reduce NAD+ to NADH when it is in an alkaline environment. Thus, IPA can be detected by the increase of fluorescence. The developed biosniffers show rapid response, high sensitivity and high selectivity. The breath acetone and IPA analysis in healthy subjects shows that the mean values were 750.0 ± 434.4 ppb and 15.4 ± 11.3 ppb. Both acetone and IPA did not show a statistical difference among different genders and ages. The breath acetone analysis for diabetic patients shows a mean value of 1207.7 ± 689.5 ppb, which was higher than that of healthy subjects (p < 1 × 10-6). In particularly, type-1 diabetic (T1D) patients exhaled a much higher concentration of acetone than type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients (p < 0.01). The breath IPA also had a higher concentration in diabetic patients (23.1 ± 20.1 ppb, p < 0.01), but only T2D patients presented a statistical difference (23.9 ± 21.3 ppb, p < 0.01). These findings are worthwhile in the study of breath biomarkers for diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Additionally, the developed biosniffers provide a new technique for volatolomics research.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry