Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that ingestion of chocolate reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. In addition, several meta-analyses have confirmed that dark chocolate improves risk factors for the metabolic syndrome including blood lipid levels. However, only a very small number of clinical trials that intervened with dark chocolate or cocoa determined the concentration of serum apolipoprotein. In our recent research, which involved a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, comparative trial in hypercholesterolemic subjects who ingested either cocoa containing a high concentration of polyphenols or placebo for 12 weeks, there was a significant reduction in the apo B/apo A1 ratio in the cocoa group compared with the placebo group. In addition, we found that the possibility of polyphenol compounds in chocolate directly affects apolipoprotein production from hepatic and intestinal cells. Moreover, it was reported that cacao polyphenols inhibited cholesterol and bile acid absorption or enhanced energy expenditure. These data suggested that cacao polyphenols act synergistically on apolipoprotein metabolism by either modifying apolipoprotein synthesis and excretion, inhibiting cholesterol and bile acid absorption, or enhancing energy expenditure.
|Title of host publication||Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 2013 Nov 1|
- Cholesterol absorption
- Energy expenditure
ASJC Scopus subject areas