We report experimental results obtained by the emulsion chambers on board of the long duration balloon. We have been carrying out the trans-Siberian-continental balloon flight since 1995, and the results from 1995 to 1996 experiments are presented here. Total exposure of these two years amounts to 231.5 m2 h at the average altitude of ~32 km. The energy range covers 10-500 TeV for proton-primary, 3-70 TeV/n for helium-primary, and 1-5 TeV/n for Fe-group (Z=26-28), though statistics of heavy components is not yet enough. Our preliminary data show that the spectra of the proton and the helium have nearly the same power indices ~2.80, while those of heavier ones become gradually harder as the mass gets heavier, for instance the index is ~2.70 for CNO-group and ~2.55 for Fe-group. It is remarkable that a very high energy proton with multi-PeV is detected in 1995 experiment, and the estimated flux of this event coincides with a simple extrapolation from the energy spectrum with the power index 2.8 observed in the range 10-500 TeV. It indicates that there is no spectral break at around 100 TeV, in contrast to the maximum energy predicted by the current shock-wave acceleration model. This evidence requires some modification on the acceleration and/or propagation mechanism. Also we present all-particle spectrum and the average primary mass in the energy range 20-1000 TeV/particle. Our preliminary data show no drastic change in mass composition over the wide energy range, at least up to 1 PeV/particle, though the statistics is not yet enough to confirm it concretely. The flight performance and the procedure of the analysis, particularly the energy determination methods and the detection efficiency calculation are also given.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Astronomy and Astrophysics