Cosmic-ray spectra and composition in the energy range of 10-1000 TeV per particle obtained by the RUNJOB experiment

V. A. Derbina, V. I. Galkin, M. Hareyama, Y. Hirakawa, Y. Horiuchi, M. Ichimura, N. Inoue, E. Kamioka, T. Kobayashi, V. V. Kopenkin, S. Kuramata, A. K. Managadze, H. Matsutani, N. P. Misnikova, R. A. Mukhamedshin, S. Nagasawa, R. Nakano, M. Namiki, M. Nakazawa, H. NanjoS. N. Nazarov, S. Ohata, H. Ohtomo, V. I. Osedlo, D. S. Oshuev, P. A. Publichenko, I. V. Rakobolskaya, T. M. Roganova, C. Saito, G. P. Sazhina, H. Semba, T. Shibata, D. Shuto, H. Sugimoto, R. Suzuki, L. G. Sveshnikova, V. M. Taran, N. Yajima, T. Yamagami, I. V. Yashin, E. A. Zamchalova, G. T. Zatsepin, I. S. Zayarnaya

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142 Citations (Scopus)


This is a full report on the cosmic-ray spectra and composition obtained by the emulsion chambers on board 10 long-duration balloons, launched from Kamchatka between 1995 and 1999. The total exposure of these campaigns amounts to 575 m2 hr, with an average flight altitude of ∼32 km. We present final results on the energy spectra of two light elements, protons and helium nuclei, and on those of three heavy-element groups, CNO, NeMgSi, and Fe, covering the very high energy region of 10-1000 TeV particle-1. We additionally present the secondary/primary ratio, the all-particle spectrum, and the average mass of the primary cosmic rays. We find that our proton spectrum is in good agreement with other results, but the intensity of the helium component is nearly half that obtained by JACEE and SOKOL. The slopes of the spectra of these two elements obtained from RUNJOB data are almost parallel, with values of 2.7-2.8 in the energy range of 10-500 TeV nucleon-1. RUNJOB heavy-component spectra are in agreement with the extrapolation from those at lower energies obtained by CRN (Chicago group), monotonically decreasing with energy. We have also observed secondary components, such as the LiBeB group and the sub-Fe group, and present the secondary/primary ratio in the TeV nucleon-1 region. We determine the all-particle spectrum and the average mass of the primary cosmic rays in the energy region of 20-1000 TeV particle-1. The intensity of the RUNJOB all-particle spectrum is 40%-50% less than those obtained by JACEE and SOKOL, and the RUNJOB average mass remains almost constant up to ∼1 PeV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)L41-L44
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1 II
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Jul 20
Externally publishedYes


  • Acceleration of particles
  • Cosmic rays
  • Shock waves
  • Supernovae: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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