Differences in soccer kicking type identified using principal component analysis

Taishu Nakamura, Tasuku Miyoshi, Shota Sato, Motoki Takagi, Yasuhisa Kamada, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Soccer kicks are characterized by segmental and joint rotations in multiple planes, where large discrepancies between two- and three-dimensional analyses for angular measurements of soccer kicks exist. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in motions of the lower limbs and the pelvis required to achieve a shot without rotations as compared with an instep kick. Kinematic parameters obtained from non-rotational shots and instep kicks were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results clearly demonstrated that the PCA identified the differences in the instep kick and the non-rotational shot relative to the kinematic motions of the lower limbs and the pelvis. These findings suggest that the key issue for executing the NR shot is achieving a straight-line foot trajectory in the impact phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-159
Number of pages11
JournalSports Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sep 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Non-rotational shot
  • Principal component analysis
  • Straight-line foot trajectory at the impact phase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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