Driving Characteristics of Drivers in a State of Low Alertness when an Autonomous System Changes from Autonomous Driving to Manual Driving

Toshiya Hirose, Dai Kitabayashi, Hidenobu Kubota

Research output: ResearchConference contribution

Abstract

This study investigated the driving characteristics of drivers when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving in the case of low driver alertness. The analysis clarified the difference in driving characteristics between cases of normal and low driver alertness. In the experiments, driver's alertness states varied from completely alert (level 1) to asleep (level 5). The experimental scenario was that the host vehicle drives along a highway at 27.8 m/s (100km/h) under the control of the autonomous system. The operation of the autonomous system is suspended, and the mode of autonomous driving changes to a mode of manual driving as the other vehicle pulls in front of the host vehicle. The driver then avoids a collision with the other vehicle with him/herself in control. The alertness level of drivers was determined from a previously developed method of examining video of the driver's face and their actions. The alertness level was compared to biological measurements (EEG and heart rate). In the results, a significant difference was observed in the reaction time and the brake pedal force for brake pedal operation in the low alertness state, compared to the normal alertness state of the driver, and there were instances when the driver was unable to perform an adequate avoidance operation. Therefore, taking into consideration the state of the driver, it is necessary to have a prior warning or an interface that ensures smooth switching, when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving.

LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationSAE Technical Papers
PublisherSAE International
Volume2015-April
EditionApril
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015 Apr 14
EventSAE 2015 World Congress and Exhibition - Detroit, United States
Duration: 2015 Apr 212015 Apr 23

Other

OtherSAE 2015 World Congress and Exhibition
CountryUnited States
CityDetroit
Period15/4/2115/4/23

Fingerprint

Brakes
Electroencephalography
Experiments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Pollution
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cite this

Hirose, T., Kitabayashi, D., & Kubota, H. (2015). Driving Characteristics of Drivers in a State of Low Alertness when an Autonomous System Changes from Autonomous Driving to Manual Driving. In SAE Technical Papers (April ed., Vol. 2015-April). SAE International. DOI: 10.4271/2015-01-1407

Driving Characteristics of Drivers in a State of Low Alertness when an Autonomous System Changes from Autonomous Driving to Manual Driving. / Hirose, Toshiya; Kitabayashi, Dai; Kubota, Hidenobu.

SAE Technical Papers. Vol. 2015-April April. ed. SAE International, 2015.

Research output: ResearchConference contribution

Hirose, T, Kitabayashi, D & Kubota, H 2015, Driving Characteristics of Drivers in a State of Low Alertness when an Autonomous System Changes from Autonomous Driving to Manual Driving. in SAE Technical Papers. April edn, vol. 2015-April, SAE International, SAE 2015 World Congress and Exhibition, Detroit, United States, 15/4/21. DOI: 10.4271/2015-01-1407
Hirose T, Kitabayashi D, Kubota H. Driving Characteristics of Drivers in a State of Low Alertness when an Autonomous System Changes from Autonomous Driving to Manual Driving. In SAE Technical Papers. April ed. Vol. 2015-April. SAE International. 2015. Available from, DOI: 10.4271/2015-01-1407
Hirose, Toshiya ; Kitabayashi, Dai ; Kubota, Hidenobu. / Driving Characteristics of Drivers in a State of Low Alertness when an Autonomous System Changes from Autonomous Driving to Manual Driving. SAE Technical Papers. Vol. 2015-April April. ed. SAE International, 2015.
@inbook{6536d1b9d8254aa6afcea9006995be77,
title = "Driving Characteristics of Drivers in a State of Low Alertness when an Autonomous System Changes from Autonomous Driving to Manual Driving",
abstract = "This study investigated the driving characteristics of drivers when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving in the case of low driver alertness. The analysis clarified the difference in driving characteristics between cases of normal and low driver alertness. In the experiments, driver's alertness states varied from completely alert (level 1) to asleep (level 5). The experimental scenario was that the host vehicle drives along a highway at 27.8 m/s (100km/h) under the control of the autonomous system. The operation of the autonomous system is suspended, and the mode of autonomous driving changes to a mode of manual driving as the other vehicle pulls in front of the host vehicle. The driver then avoids a collision with the other vehicle with him/herself in control. The alertness level of drivers was determined from a previously developed method of examining video of the driver's face and their actions. The alertness level was compared to biological measurements (EEG and heart rate). In the results, a significant difference was observed in the reaction time and the brake pedal force for brake pedal operation in the low alertness state, compared to the normal alertness state of the driver, and there were instances when the driver was unable to perform an adequate avoidance operation. Therefore, taking into consideration the state of the driver, it is necessary to have a prior warning or an interface that ensures smooth switching, when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving.",
author = "Toshiya Hirose and Dai Kitabayashi and Hidenobu Kubota",
year = "2015",
month = "4",
doi = "10.4271/2015-01-1407",
volume = "2015-April",
booktitle = "SAE Technical Papers",
publisher = "SAE International",
edition = "April",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Driving Characteristics of Drivers in a State of Low Alertness when an Autonomous System Changes from Autonomous Driving to Manual Driving

AU - Hirose,Toshiya

AU - Kitabayashi,Dai

AU - Kubota,Hidenobu

PY - 2015/4/14

Y1 - 2015/4/14

N2 - This study investigated the driving characteristics of drivers when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving in the case of low driver alertness. The analysis clarified the difference in driving characteristics between cases of normal and low driver alertness. In the experiments, driver's alertness states varied from completely alert (level 1) to asleep (level 5). The experimental scenario was that the host vehicle drives along a highway at 27.8 m/s (100km/h) under the control of the autonomous system. The operation of the autonomous system is suspended, and the mode of autonomous driving changes to a mode of manual driving as the other vehicle pulls in front of the host vehicle. The driver then avoids a collision with the other vehicle with him/herself in control. The alertness level of drivers was determined from a previously developed method of examining video of the driver's face and their actions. The alertness level was compared to biological measurements (EEG and heart rate). In the results, a significant difference was observed in the reaction time and the brake pedal force for brake pedal operation in the low alertness state, compared to the normal alertness state of the driver, and there were instances when the driver was unable to perform an adequate avoidance operation. Therefore, taking into consideration the state of the driver, it is necessary to have a prior warning or an interface that ensures smooth switching, when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving.

AB - This study investigated the driving characteristics of drivers when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving in the case of low driver alertness. The analysis clarified the difference in driving characteristics between cases of normal and low driver alertness. In the experiments, driver's alertness states varied from completely alert (level 1) to asleep (level 5). The experimental scenario was that the host vehicle drives along a highway at 27.8 m/s (100km/h) under the control of the autonomous system. The operation of the autonomous system is suspended, and the mode of autonomous driving changes to a mode of manual driving as the other vehicle pulls in front of the host vehicle. The driver then avoids a collision with the other vehicle with him/herself in control. The alertness level of drivers was determined from a previously developed method of examining video of the driver's face and their actions. The alertness level was compared to biological measurements (EEG and heart rate). In the results, a significant difference was observed in the reaction time and the brake pedal force for brake pedal operation in the low alertness state, compared to the normal alertness state of the driver, and there were instances when the driver was unable to perform an adequate avoidance operation. Therefore, taking into consideration the state of the driver, it is necessary to have a prior warning or an interface that ensures smooth switching, when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84938346316&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84938346316&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.4271/2015-01-1407

DO - 10.4271/2015-01-1407

M3 - Conference contribution

VL - 2015-April

BT - SAE Technical Papers

PB - SAE International

ER -