Due to an increasing number of cardiovascular diseases, artificial heart valves and blood vessels have been developed. Although cardiovascular applications using decellularized tissue have been studied, the mechanisms of their functionality remain unknown. To determine the important factors for preparing decellularized cardiovascular prostheses that show good in vivo performance, the effects of the luminal surface structure of the decellularized aorta on thrombus formation and cell behavior were investigated. Various luminal surface structures of a decellularized aorta were prepared by heating, drying, and peeling. The luminal surface structure and collagen denaturation were evaluated by immunohistological staining, collagen hybridizing peptide (CHP) staining, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. To evaluate the effects of luminal surface structure of decellularized aorta on thrombus formation and cell behavior, blood clotting tests and recellularization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells were performed. The results of the blood clotting test showed that the closer the luminal surface structure is to the native aorta, the higher the anti-coagulant property. The results of the cell seeding test suggest that vascular cells recognize the luminal surface structure and regulate adhesion, proliferation, and functional expression accordingly. These results provide important factors for preparing decellularized cardiovascular prostheses and will lead to future developments in decellularized cardiovascular applications.
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