Fabrication of nanostructured titanium thin films via N ion implantation and postannealing treatment

S. Muraishi, T. Aizawa, H. Kuwahara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Supersaturated Ti(N) thin films have been prepared by the combination of low temperature nonequilibrium processes of ion beam sputtering (IBS) and ion implantation method. Ti thin films of 150 nm in thickness have been deposited on (001) Si substrate by IBS. N+ ions have been penetrated into the films with the dose of 1 × 1017 ∼ 2 × 1018 ion/cm2. The structural changes due to the N-implantation and successive heat treatments have been evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) chemical analysis and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The distribution of N atoms in N-implanted Ti films has been measured by XPS. The maximum concentration of N was achieved at the Ti/Si interface with beam energy of 100 keV. The linear increase of the binding energy shift in proportion to the N concentration suggests that N-implanted Ti films consist of Ti(N) supersaturated solid solution. From TEM observation, as-deposited Ti films show the conventional hcp structure with columnar grains 10 nm in diameter. These grains with growth direction of [0001]α develop perpendicular to the (001) Si substrate. N-implantation results in the film having the complex structure of α-Ti(N) solid solution with small amounts of ε-Ti2N and δ-TiN. Formation of the εTi2N is recognized from electron diffraction for the N-implanted specimen with 1 × 1017 ion/cm2 and the δ-TiN phase for the specimen with 5 × 1017 ion/cm2. The lattice constant has been measured from electron diffraction and the c/a ratio of hcp-Ti(N) increases in proportion to the N concentration toward the theoretical value for cubic structure. The XPS compositional measurement suggests that N-implantation induces the anomaly saturated N in hcp-Ti(N) lattice. The lattice constant of hcp-Ti(N) decreases by postannealing treatment at 773 K. Postannealing promotes the phase decomposition of supersaturated solid solution of hcp-Ti(N) into meta-stable nitrides.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)260-264
Number of pages5
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
Volume188-189
Issue number1-3 SPEC.ISS.
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Nov
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Titanium
Ion implantation
ion implantation
titanium
Fabrication
Thin films
fabrication
Ions
thin films
Solid solutions
implantation
solid solutions
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
photoelectron spectroscopy
Electron diffraction
Ion beams
Lattice constants
Sputtering
proportion
ions

Keywords

  • Ion beam sputter
  • Ion Implantation
  • Nitride
  • TEM
  • XPS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces

Cite this

Fabrication of nanostructured titanium thin films via N ion implantation and postannealing treatment. / Muraishi, S.; Aizawa, T.; Kuwahara, H.

In: Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 188-189, No. 1-3 SPEC.ISS., 11.2004, p. 260-264.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Muraishi, S. ; Aizawa, T. ; Kuwahara, H. / Fabrication of nanostructured titanium thin films via N ion implantation and postannealing treatment. In: Surface and Coatings Technology. 2004 ; Vol. 188-189, No. 1-3 SPEC.ISS. pp. 260-264.
@article{b75c3d25fda84d2da854edac8b096a96,
title = "Fabrication of nanostructured titanium thin films via N ion implantation and postannealing treatment",
abstract = "Supersaturated Ti(N) thin films have been prepared by the combination of low temperature nonequilibrium processes of ion beam sputtering (IBS) and ion implantation method. Ti thin films of 150 nm in thickness have been deposited on (001) Si substrate by IBS. N+ ions have been penetrated into the films with the dose of 1 × 1017 ∼ 2 × 1018 ion/cm2. The structural changes due to the N-implantation and successive heat treatments have been evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) chemical analysis and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The distribution of N atoms in N-implanted Ti films has been measured by XPS. The maximum concentration of N was achieved at the Ti/Si interface with beam energy of 100 keV. The linear increase of the binding energy shift in proportion to the N concentration suggests that N-implanted Ti films consist of Ti(N) supersaturated solid solution. From TEM observation, as-deposited Ti films show the conventional hcp structure with columnar grains 10 nm in diameter. These grains with growth direction of [0001]α develop perpendicular to the (001) Si substrate. N-implantation results in the film having the complex structure of α-Ti(N) solid solution with small amounts of ε-Ti2N and δ-TiN. Formation of the εTi2N is recognized from electron diffraction for the N-implanted specimen with 1 × 1017 ion/cm2 and the δ-TiN phase for the specimen with 5 × 1017 ion/cm2. The lattice constant has been measured from electron diffraction and the c/a ratio of hcp-Ti(N) increases in proportion to the N concentration toward the theoretical value for cubic structure. The XPS compositional measurement suggests that N-implantation induces the anomaly saturated N in hcp-Ti(N) lattice. The lattice constant of hcp-Ti(N) decreases by postannealing treatment at 773 K. Postannealing promotes the phase decomposition of supersaturated solid solution of hcp-Ti(N) into meta-stable nitrides.",
keywords = "Ion beam sputter, Ion Implantation, Nitride, TEM, XPS",
author = "S. Muraishi and T. Aizawa and H. Kuwahara",
year = "2004",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.08.040",
language = "English",
volume = "188-189",
pages = "260--264",
journal = "Surface and Coatings Technology",
issn = "0257-8972",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-3 SPEC.ISS.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fabrication of nanostructured titanium thin films via N ion implantation and postannealing treatment

AU - Muraishi, S.

AU - Aizawa, T.

AU - Kuwahara, H.

PY - 2004/11

Y1 - 2004/11

N2 - Supersaturated Ti(N) thin films have been prepared by the combination of low temperature nonequilibrium processes of ion beam sputtering (IBS) and ion implantation method. Ti thin films of 150 nm in thickness have been deposited on (001) Si substrate by IBS. N+ ions have been penetrated into the films with the dose of 1 × 1017 ∼ 2 × 1018 ion/cm2. The structural changes due to the N-implantation and successive heat treatments have been evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) chemical analysis and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The distribution of N atoms in N-implanted Ti films has been measured by XPS. The maximum concentration of N was achieved at the Ti/Si interface with beam energy of 100 keV. The linear increase of the binding energy shift in proportion to the N concentration suggests that N-implanted Ti films consist of Ti(N) supersaturated solid solution. From TEM observation, as-deposited Ti films show the conventional hcp structure with columnar grains 10 nm in diameter. These grains with growth direction of [0001]α develop perpendicular to the (001) Si substrate. N-implantation results in the film having the complex structure of α-Ti(N) solid solution with small amounts of ε-Ti2N and δ-TiN. Formation of the εTi2N is recognized from electron diffraction for the N-implanted specimen with 1 × 1017 ion/cm2 and the δ-TiN phase for the specimen with 5 × 1017 ion/cm2. The lattice constant has been measured from electron diffraction and the c/a ratio of hcp-Ti(N) increases in proportion to the N concentration toward the theoretical value for cubic structure. The XPS compositional measurement suggests that N-implantation induces the anomaly saturated N in hcp-Ti(N) lattice. The lattice constant of hcp-Ti(N) decreases by postannealing treatment at 773 K. Postannealing promotes the phase decomposition of supersaturated solid solution of hcp-Ti(N) into meta-stable nitrides.

AB - Supersaturated Ti(N) thin films have been prepared by the combination of low temperature nonequilibrium processes of ion beam sputtering (IBS) and ion implantation method. Ti thin films of 150 nm in thickness have been deposited on (001) Si substrate by IBS. N+ ions have been penetrated into the films with the dose of 1 × 1017 ∼ 2 × 1018 ion/cm2. The structural changes due to the N-implantation and successive heat treatments have been evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) chemical analysis and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The distribution of N atoms in N-implanted Ti films has been measured by XPS. The maximum concentration of N was achieved at the Ti/Si interface with beam energy of 100 keV. The linear increase of the binding energy shift in proportion to the N concentration suggests that N-implanted Ti films consist of Ti(N) supersaturated solid solution. From TEM observation, as-deposited Ti films show the conventional hcp structure with columnar grains 10 nm in diameter. These grains with growth direction of [0001]α develop perpendicular to the (001) Si substrate. N-implantation results in the film having the complex structure of α-Ti(N) solid solution with small amounts of ε-Ti2N and δ-TiN. Formation of the εTi2N is recognized from electron diffraction for the N-implanted specimen with 1 × 1017 ion/cm2 and the δ-TiN phase for the specimen with 5 × 1017 ion/cm2. The lattice constant has been measured from electron diffraction and the c/a ratio of hcp-Ti(N) increases in proportion to the N concentration toward the theoretical value for cubic structure. The XPS compositional measurement suggests that N-implantation induces the anomaly saturated N in hcp-Ti(N) lattice. The lattice constant of hcp-Ti(N) decreases by postannealing treatment at 773 K. Postannealing promotes the phase decomposition of supersaturated solid solution of hcp-Ti(N) into meta-stable nitrides.

KW - Ion beam sputter

KW - Ion Implantation

KW - Nitride

KW - TEM

KW - XPS

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=14644416576&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=14644416576&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.08.040

DO - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.08.040

M3 - Article

VL - 188-189

SP - 260

EP - 264

JO - Surface and Coatings Technology

JF - Surface and Coatings Technology

SN - 0257-8972

IS - 1-3 SPEC.ISS.

ER -