Factor structure of the revised TOEIC® test

A multiple-sample analysis

Yo In'nami, Rie Koizumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study examined the factor structure of the listening and reading sections of the revised Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) test. The data from the TOEIC IP (institutional program) test taken by 569 English learners were randomly split into two samples (n = 285 vs. 284). Four models (higher-order, correlated, uncorrelated, and unitary) were hypothesized on the basis of the literature and were tested with each sample. The results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the correlated model fit the data best in both samples. Further, multiple-sample analysis using the two samples supported an invariance of factor loadings, measurement error variances, factor variances, and factor covariances for the correlated model in the revised TOEIC test. The presence of distinctive factors of listening and reading skills supports the reporting of separate scores for each skill, whereas the relatively high correlation between the two factors may support single score reporting. This is in accordance with the formats used to report revised TOEIC test scores. The results of the current study provide empirical support for the reporting practice of the revised TOEIC test and thus for test interpretation based on the test scores.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-152
Number of pages22
JournalLanguage Testing
Volume29
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jan

Fingerprint

international communication
International Communication
factor analysis

Keywords

  • cross-validation
  • factor structure
  • multiple-sample analysis
  • TOEIC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Linguistics and Language
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Language and Linguistics

Cite this

Factor structure of the revised TOEIC® test : A multiple-sample analysis. / In'nami, Yo; Koizumi, Rie.

In: Language Testing, Vol. 29, No. 1, 01.2012, p. 131-152.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

In'nami, Yo ; Koizumi, Rie. / Factor structure of the revised TOEIC® test : A multiple-sample analysis. In: Language Testing. 2012 ; Vol. 29, No. 1. pp. 131-152.
@article{75133f8102bf4f928b229e0ba249bca7,
title = "Factor structure of the revised TOEIC{\circledR} test: A multiple-sample analysis",
abstract = "This study examined the factor structure of the listening and reading sections of the revised Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC{\circledR}) test. The data from the TOEIC IP (institutional program) test taken by 569 English learners were randomly split into two samples (n = 285 vs. 284). Four models (higher-order, correlated, uncorrelated, and unitary) were hypothesized on the basis of the literature and were tested with each sample. The results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the correlated model fit the data best in both samples. Further, multiple-sample analysis using the two samples supported an invariance of factor loadings, measurement error variances, factor variances, and factor covariances for the correlated model in the revised TOEIC test. The presence of distinctive factors of listening and reading skills supports the reporting of separate scores for each skill, whereas the relatively high correlation between the two factors may support single score reporting. This is in accordance with the formats used to report revised TOEIC test scores. The results of the current study provide empirical support for the reporting practice of the revised TOEIC test and thus for test interpretation based on the test scores.",
keywords = "cross-validation, factor structure, multiple-sample analysis, TOEIC",
author = "Yo In'nami and Rie Koizumi",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0265532211413444",
language = "English",
volume = "29",
pages = "131--152",
journal = "Language Testing",
issn = "0265-5322",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Factor structure of the revised TOEIC® test

T2 - A multiple-sample analysis

AU - In'nami, Yo

AU - Koizumi, Rie

PY - 2012/1

Y1 - 2012/1

N2 - This study examined the factor structure of the listening and reading sections of the revised Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) test. The data from the TOEIC IP (institutional program) test taken by 569 English learners were randomly split into two samples (n = 285 vs. 284). Four models (higher-order, correlated, uncorrelated, and unitary) were hypothesized on the basis of the literature and were tested with each sample. The results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the correlated model fit the data best in both samples. Further, multiple-sample analysis using the two samples supported an invariance of factor loadings, measurement error variances, factor variances, and factor covariances for the correlated model in the revised TOEIC test. The presence of distinctive factors of listening and reading skills supports the reporting of separate scores for each skill, whereas the relatively high correlation between the two factors may support single score reporting. This is in accordance with the formats used to report revised TOEIC test scores. The results of the current study provide empirical support for the reporting practice of the revised TOEIC test and thus for test interpretation based on the test scores.

AB - This study examined the factor structure of the listening and reading sections of the revised Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) test. The data from the TOEIC IP (institutional program) test taken by 569 English learners were randomly split into two samples (n = 285 vs. 284). Four models (higher-order, correlated, uncorrelated, and unitary) were hypothesized on the basis of the literature and were tested with each sample. The results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the correlated model fit the data best in both samples. Further, multiple-sample analysis using the two samples supported an invariance of factor loadings, measurement error variances, factor variances, and factor covariances for the correlated model in the revised TOEIC test. The presence of distinctive factors of listening and reading skills supports the reporting of separate scores for each skill, whereas the relatively high correlation between the two factors may support single score reporting. This is in accordance with the formats used to report revised TOEIC test scores. The results of the current study provide empirical support for the reporting practice of the revised TOEIC test and thus for test interpretation based on the test scores.

KW - cross-validation

KW - factor structure

KW - multiple-sample analysis

KW - TOEIC

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84856256241&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84856256241&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0265532211413444

DO - 10.1177/0265532211413444

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 131

EP - 152

JO - Language Testing

JF - Language Testing

SN - 0265-5322

IS - 1

ER -