The Hugenholtz-Pines (HP) theorem is derived for Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with internal degrees of freedom. The low-energy Ward-Takahashi identity is provided in the system with the linear and quadratic symmetry breaking terms. This identity serves to organize the HP theorem for multicomponent BECs, such as the binary BEC as well as the spin-f spinor BEC in the presence of a magnetic field with broken U(1)×SO(3) symmetry. The experimental method based on the Stern-Gerlach experiment is proposed for studying the Ward-Takahashi identity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics