New aspects of Vitamin K research with synthetic ligands: Transcriptional activity via SXR and Neural differentiation activity

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vitamin K is classified into three homologs depending on the side-chain structure, with 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoqumone as the basic skeleton. These homologs are vitamin K1 (phylloquinone: PK), derived from plants with a phythyl side chain; vitamin K2 (menaquinone-n: MK-n), derived from intestinal bacteria with an isoprene side chain; and vitamin K3 (menadione: MD), a synthetic product without a side chain. Vitamin K homologs have physiological effects, including in blood coagulation and in osteogenic activity via γ-glutamyl carboxylase and are used clinically. Recent studies have revealed that vitamin K homologs are converted to MK-4 by the UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein 1 (UBIAD1) in vivo and accumulate in all tissues. Although vitamin K is considered to have important physiological effects, its precise activities and mechanisms largely remain unclear. Recent research on vitamin K has suggested various new roles, such as transcriptional activity as an agonist of steroid and xenobiotic nuclear receptor and differentiation-inducing activity in neural stem cells. In this review, we describe synthetic ligands based on vitamin K and exhibit that the strength of biological activity can be controlled by modification of the side chain part.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3006
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume20
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 2

Keywords

  • Derivatives research
  • Neural differentiation action
  • Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR)
  • UBIAD1
  • Vitamin K
  • ã-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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