Nonlinear Extended Observer-Based ADRC for a Lower-Limb PAM-Based Exoskeleton

Quy Thinh Dao, Van Vuong Dinh, Minh Chien Trinh, Viet Cuong Tran, Van Linh Nguyen, Minh Duc Duong, Ngoc Tam Bui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In lower-limb rehabilitation systems, exoskeleton robots are one of the most important components. These robots help patients to execute repetitive exercises under the guidance of physiotherapists. Recently, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM), a kind of actuator that acts similarly to human muscles, have been chosen to power the exoskeleton robot for better human–machine interaction. In order to enhance the performance of a PAM-based exoskeleton robot, this article implements an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) strategy with a nonlinear extended state observer (NLESO). Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov’s theory. Finally, the experimental results show that with the proposed control strategy, the rehabilitation robot can effectively track the desired trajectories even when under external disturbance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number369
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec


  • active disturbance rejection control
  • gait training device
  • nonlinear extended state observer
  • pneumatic artificial muscle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Control and Optimization


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