We prepared (Nd, Eu, Gd)Ba2Cu3Oy samples with various Nd: Eu: Gd ratios in the rare earth site. It was found that the three elements contributed to flux pinning in different ways. Nd mainly enhanced flux pinning at low magnetic fields, Eu controlled the second peak position and the irreversibility field, while Gd slightly enhanced intermediate and high-field Jc values. Scaling analyses for the pinning force density as a function of the reduced field h = Ha/Hirr (where Hirr denote the irreversibility field) showed that the highest peak was achieved at h = 0.56. This value is even higher than the theoretically predicted highest value of h = 0.5. We also show that a maximum flux pinning can be achieved in the whole magnetic field when very fine secondary phase particles are dispersed in a superconducting (Nd, Eu, Gd)Ba2Cu3Oy matrix with an optimum Nd: Eu: Gd ratio.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)