Proposal for artificial bone formation using powder-layered manufacturing: Surface and internal chemical composition of formed artificial bone

Kenji Yamazawa, Daisuke Hashizume, Aiko Nakao, Masahiro Anzai, Hiroyuki Narahara, Hiroshi Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this study, we proposed a powder-layered manufacturing process, a type of rapid prototyping technique, to produce desired bone shapes for transplants using biomaterial powder. In the experiments, we used conventional inkjet-type equipment and orthopedic filling-paste powder (BIOPEX), mainly containing alphatribasic calcium phosphate as the forming material. To solidify the powder, we used a sodium chondroitin sulfate? dibasic sodium succinate anhydride aqueous solution as the binder liquid. This paper discusses the results of investigations on the internal and surface chemical characteristics of formed artificial bones, formed artificial bones hardened by immersion process, and paste type artificial bones used in clinical applications, to determine the suitability of the immersion conditions. The bones were immersed for five hours in immersion fluid made of water and binder liquid at 90 °C?To analyze the chemical constituent, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used. The results showed that the hydrate reaction caused by the application of the binder fluid during forming enhances hydroxyapatite (HA) concentration by about 6.5 times. With samples immersed in water, HA was found internally as well as from the surface, the quantity of which was about 80?, 11 times more than conventional paste type artificial bone. On the other hand, with the samples immersed in the binder fluid, no HA crystals were detected internally. The percentages of P and Ca present on the surface were minute. Given the high quantities of C, O, and Na present, the immersion process is thought to have formed a thin layer of binder fluid. These results from the experimental samples indicate that immersion in binder fluid which showed no problems in terms of chemistry and strength is most appropriate for clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-365
Number of pages7
JournalTransactions of Japanese Society for Medical and Biological Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial bone
  • Layered manufacturing
  • Rapid prototyping
  • X-ray diffraction
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Proposal for artificial bone formation using powder-layered manufacturing: Surface and internal chemical composition of formed artificial bone'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this