Recent trends in lower-limb robotic rehabilitation orthosis: Control scheme and strategy for pneumatic muscle actuated gait trainers

Mohd Azuwan Mat Dzahir, Shinichirou Yamamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

62 Citations (Scopus)


It is a general assumption that pneumatic muscle-type actuators will play an important role in the development of an assistive rehabilitation robotics system. In the last decade, the development of a pneumatic muscle actuated lower-limb leg orthosis has been rather slow compared to other types of actuated leg orthoses that use AC motors, DC motors, pneumatic cylinders, linear actuators, series elastic actuators (SEA) and brushless servomotors. However, recent years have shown that the interest in this field has grown exponentially, mainly due to the demand for a more compliant and interactive human-robotics system. This paper presents a survey of existing lower-limb leg orthoses for rehabilitation, which implement pneumatic muscle-type actuators, such as McKibben artificial muscles, rubbertuators, air muscles, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMA). It reviews all the currently existing lower-limb rehabilitation orthosis systems in terms of comparison and evaluation of the design, as well as the control scheme and strategy, with the aim of clarifying the current and on-going research in the lower-limb robotic rehabilitation field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-148
Number of pages29
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun 1



  • Co-contraction strategy of antagonistic actuators
  • Pneumatic muscle-type actuators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Control and Optimization
  • Artificial Intelligence

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