Size-strength relationships of the elbow flexors and extensors are not affected by age or gender

Ryota Akagi, Yohei Takai, Megumi Ohta, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)


In the present study, we examined the relationships between muscle volume and joint torque for the elbow flexors and extensors in young and elderly individuals, with the aim of evaluating age effects on these relationships. The participants were 45 young (27 men and 18 women aged 20-37 years) and 51 elderly (19 men and 32 women aged 60-77 years) individuals. The joint torques developed during isometric maximal voluntary elbow flexion and extension were measured using a torque meter. The muscle volumes of the elbow flexors and extensors were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. For the elbow flexors, joint torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume in both young and elderly individuals (r = 0.564-0.872). There were also significant correlations between muscle volume and joint torque for the elbow extensors in elderly men and women as well as in young men and women (r = 0.715-0.826). None of the y-intercepts of the regression lines between muscle volume and joint torque were significantly different from zero. Furthermore, no significant age or gender effects on the joint torque per muscle volume of the elbow flexors and extensors were observed. The present results suggest that muscle volume is a main determinant of joint torque regardless of age and gender, for both muscle groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-282
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jul
Externally publishedYes



  • Joint torque
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Maximal isometric contraction
  • Muscle volume

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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