Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster

Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa & 173 others Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousine, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F. Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K. Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, S. Porter Frederick, Katja Pottschmidt, S. Reynolds Christopher, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K. Smith, Yang Soong, Lukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin Ichirotakeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T. Tanaka, Makoto S. Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shinichiro Uno, C. Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Cor P.De Vries, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Daniel R. Wik, Dan R. Wilkins, Brian J. Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode. Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun, suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way. However, because the K-shell transition lines of chromium and manganese are weak and those of iron and nickel are very close in photon energy, high-resolution spectroscopy is required for an accurate determination of the abundances of these elements. Here we report observations of the Perseus cluster, with statistically significant detections of the resonance emission from chromium, manganese and nickel. Our measurements, combined with the latest atomic models, reveal that these elements have near-solar abundance ratios with respect to iron, in contrast to previous claims. Comparison between our results and modern nucleosynthesis calculations disfavours the hypothesis that type Ia supernova progenitors are exclusively white dwarfs with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit (about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun). The observed abundance pattern of the iron-peak elements can be explained by taking into account a combination of near- A nd sub-Chandrasekhar-mass type Ia supernova systems, adding to the mounting evidence that both progenitor types make a substantial contribution to cosmic chemical enrichment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)478-480
Number of pages3
JournalNature
Volume551
Issue number7681
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Nov 23

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supernovae
iron
manganese
chromium
nickel
sun
heavy elements
high temperature plasmas
mounting
nuclear fusion
spectroscopy
explosions
x rays
galaxies
high resolution
photons
metals
energy

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Cite this

Aharonian, F., Akamatsu, H., Akimoto, F., Allen, S. W., Angelini, L., Audard, M., ... Zoghbi, A. (2017). Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster. Nature, 551(7681), 478-480. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24301

Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster. / Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steven W.; Angelini, Lorella; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Axelsson, Magnus; Bamba, Aya; Bautz, Marshall W.; Blandford, Roger; Brenneman, Laura W.; Brown, Gregory V.; Bulbul, Esra; Cackett, Edward M.; Chernyakova, Maria; Chiao, Meng P.; Coppi, Paolo S.; Costantini, Elisa; De Plaa, Jelle; Den Herder, Jan Willem; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan E.; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam R.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi C.; Gandhi, Poshak; Giustini, Margherita; Goldwurm, Andrea; Gu, Liyi; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haba, Yoshito; Hagino, Kouichi; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Harrus, Ilana M.; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko S.; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John P.; Ichinohe, Yuto; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishida, Manabu; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Iwai, Masachika; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Tim; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kitaguchi, Takao; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Koyama, Katsuji; Koyama, Shu; Kretschmar, Peter; Krimm, Hans A.; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lee, Shiu Hang; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Limousine, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox S.; Lumb, David; Madejski, Greg; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; McNamara, Brian R.; Mehdipour, Missagh; Miller, Eric D.; Miller, Jon M.; Mineshige, Shin; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Hideyuki; Mori, Koji; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakashima, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stéphane; Petre, Robert; Pinto, Ciro; Frederick, S. Porter; Pottschmidt, Katja; Christopher, S. Reynolds; Safi-Harb, Samar; Saito, Shinya; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Toru; Sato, Goro; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Rie; Sawada, Makoto; Schartel, Norbert; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Seta, Hiromi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Simionescu, Aurora; Smith, Randall K.; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Ichirotakeda, Shin; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Ueda, Shutaro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Uno, Shinichiro; Urry, C. Megan; Ursino, Eugenio; Vries, Cor P.De; Watanabe, Shin; Werner, Norbert; Wik, Daniel R.; Wilkins, Dan R.; Williams, Brian J.; Yamada, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yaqoob, Tahir; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Zhuravleva, Irina; Zoghbi, Abderahmen.

In: Nature, Vol. 551, No. 7681, 23.11.2017, p. 478-480.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aharonian, F, Akamatsu, H, Akimoto, F, Allen, SW, Angelini, L, Audard, M, Awaki, H, Axelsson, M, Bamba, A, Bautz, MW, Blandford, R, Brenneman, LW, Brown, GV, Bulbul, E, Cackett, EM, Chernyakova, M, Chiao, MP, Coppi, PS, Costantini, E, De Plaa, J, Den Herder, JW, Done, C, Dotani, T, Ebisawa, K, Eckart, ME, Enoto, T, Ezoe, Y, Fabian, AC, Ferrigno, C, Foster, AR, Fujimoto, R, Fukazawa, Y, Furuzawa, A, Galeazzi, M, Gallo, LC, Gandhi, P, Giustini, M, Goldwurm, A, Gu, L, Guainazzi, M, Haba, Y, Hagino, K, Hamaguchi, K, Harrus, IM, Hatsukade, I, Hayashi, K, Hayashi, T, Hayashida, K, Hiraga, JS, Hornschemeier, A, Hoshino, A, Hughes, JP, Ichinohe, Y, Iizuka, R, Inoue, H, Inoue, Y, Ishida, M, Ishikawa, K, Ishisaki, Y, Iwai, M, Kaastra, J, Kallman, T, Kamae, T, Kataoka, J, Katsuda, S, Kawai, N, Kelley, RL, Kilbourne, CA, Kitaguchi, T, Kitamoto, S, Kitayama, T, Kohmura, T, Kokubun, M, Koyama, K, Koyama, S, Kretschmar, P, Krimm, HA, Kubota, A, Kunieda, H, Laurent, P, Lee, SH, Leutenegger, MA, Limousine, O, Loewenstein, M, Long, KS, Lumb, D, Madejski, G, Maeda, Y, Maier, D, Makishima, K, Markevitch, M, Matsumoto, H, Matsushita, K, McCammon, D, McNamara, BR, Mehdipour, M, Miller, ED, Miller, JM, Mineshige, S, Mitsuda, K, Mitsuishi, I, Miyazawa, T, Mizuno, T, Mori, H, Mori, K, Mukai, K, Murakami, H, Mushotzky, RF, Nakagawa, T, Nakajima, H, Nakamori, T, Nakashima, S, Nakazawa, K, Nobukawa, KK, Nobukawa, M, Noda, H, Odaka, H, Ohashi, T, Ohno, M, Okajima, T, Ota, N, Ozaki, M, Paerels, F, Paltani, S, Petre, R, Pinto, C, Frederick, SP, Pottschmidt, K, Christopher, SR, Safi-Harb, S, Saito, S, Sakai, K, Sasaki, T, Sato, G, Sato, K, Sato, R, Sawada, M, Schartel, N, Serlemitsos, PJ, Seta, H, Shidatsu, M, Simionescu, A, Smith, RK, Soong, Y, Stawarz, L, Sugawara, Y, Sugita, S, Szymkowiak, A, Tajima, H, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, T, Ichirotakeda, S, Takei, Y, Tamagawa, T, Tamura, T, Tanaka, T, Tanaka, Y, Tanaka, YT, Tashiro, MS, Tawara, Y, Terada, Y, Terashima, Y, Tombesi, F, Tomida, H, Tsuboi, Y, Tsujimoto, M, Tsunemi, H, Tsuru, TG, Uchida, H, Uchiyama, H, Uchiyama, Y, Ueda, S, Ueda, Y, Uno, S, Urry, CM, Ursino, E, Vries, CPD, Watanabe, S, Werner, N, Wik, DR, Wilkins, DR, Williams, BJ, Yamada, S, Yamaguchi, H, Yamaoka, K, Yamasaki, NY, Yamauchi, M, Yamauchi, S, Yaqoob, T, Yatsu, Y, Yonetoku, D, Zhuravleva, I & Zoghbi, A 2017, 'Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster', Nature, vol. 551, no. 7681, pp. 478-480. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24301
Aharonian F, Akamatsu H, Akimoto F, Allen SW, Angelini L, Audard M et al. Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster. Nature. 2017 Nov 23;551(7681):478-480. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24301
Aharonian, Felix ; Akamatsu, Hiroki ; Akimoto, Fumie ; Allen, Steven W. ; Angelini, Lorella ; Audard, Marc ; Awaki, Hisamitsu ; Axelsson, Magnus ; Bamba, Aya ; Bautz, Marshall W. ; Blandford, Roger ; Brenneman, Laura W. ; Brown, Gregory V. ; Bulbul, Esra ; Cackett, Edward M. ; Chernyakova, Maria ; Chiao, Meng P. ; Coppi, Paolo S. ; Costantini, Elisa ; De Plaa, Jelle ; Den Herder, Jan Willem ; Done, Chris ; Dotani, Tadayasu ; Ebisawa, Ken ; Eckart, Megan E. ; Enoto, Teruaki ; Ezoe, Yuichiro ; Fabian, Andrew C. ; Ferrigno, Carlo ; Foster, Adam R. ; Fujimoto, Ryuichi ; Fukazawa, Yasushi ; Furuzawa, Akihiro ; Galeazzi, Massimiliano ; Gallo, Luigi C. ; Gandhi, Poshak ; Giustini, Margherita ; Goldwurm, Andrea ; Gu, Liyi ; Guainazzi, Matteo ; Haba, Yoshito ; Hagino, Kouichi ; Hamaguchi, Kenji ; Harrus, Ilana M. ; Hatsukade, Isamu ; Hayashi, Katsuhiro ; Hayashi, Takayuki ; Hayashida, Kiyoshi ; Hiraga, Junko S. ; Hornschemeier, Ann ; Hoshino, Akio ; Hughes, John P. ; Ichinohe, Yuto ; Iizuka, Ryo ; Inoue, Hajime ; Inoue, Yoshiyuki ; Ishida, Manabu ; Ishikawa, Kumi ; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka ; Iwai, Masachika ; Kaastra, Jelle ; Kallman, Tim ; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi ; Kataoka, Jun ; Katsuda, Satoru ; Kawai, Nobuyuki ; Kelley, Richard L. ; Kilbourne, Caroline A. ; Kitaguchi, Takao ; Kitamoto, Shunji ; Kitayama, Tetsu ; Kohmura, Takayoshi ; Kokubun, Motohide ; Koyama, Katsuji ; Koyama, Shu ; Kretschmar, Peter ; Krimm, Hans A. ; Kubota, Aya ; Kunieda, Hideyo ; Laurent, Philippe ; Lee, Shiu Hang ; Leutenegger, Maurice A. ; Limousine, Olivier ; Loewenstein, Michael ; Long, Knox S. ; Lumb, David ; Madejski, Greg ; Maeda, Yoshitomo ; Maier, Daniel ; Makishima, Kazuo ; Markevitch, Maxim ; Matsumoto, Hironori ; Matsushita, Kyoko ; McCammon, Dan ; McNamara, Brian R. ; Mehdipour, Missagh ; Miller, Eric D. ; Miller, Jon M. ; Mineshige, Shin ; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa ; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki ; Miyazawa, Takuya ; Mizuno, Tsunefumi ; Mori, Hideyuki ; Mori, Koji ; Mukai, Koji ; Murakami, Hiroshi ; Mushotzky, Richard F. ; Nakagawa, Takao ; Nakajima, Hiroshi ; Nakamori, Takeshi ; Nakashima, Shinya ; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro ; Nobukawa, Kumiko K. ; Nobukawa, Masayoshi ; Noda, Hirofumi ; Odaka, Hirokazu ; Ohashi, Takaya ; Ohno, Masanori ; Okajima, Takashi ; Ota, Naomi ; Ozaki, Masanobu ; Paerels, Frits ; Paltani, Stéphane ; Petre, Robert ; Pinto, Ciro ; Frederick, S. Porter ; Pottschmidt, Katja ; Christopher, S. Reynolds ; Safi-Harb, Samar ; Saito, Shinya ; Sakai, Kazuhiro ; Sasaki, Toru ; Sato, Goro ; Sato, Kosuke ; Sato, Rie ; Sawada, Makoto ; Schartel, Norbert ; Serlemitsos, Peter J. ; Seta, Hiromi ; Shidatsu, Megumi ; Simionescu, Aurora ; Smith, Randall K. ; Soong, Yang ; Stawarz, Lukasz ; Sugawara, Yasuharu ; Sugita, Satoshi ; Szymkowiak, Andrew ; Tajima, Hiroyasu ; Takahashi, Hiromitsu ; Takahashi, Tadayuki ; Ichirotakeda, Shin ; Takei, Yoh ; Tamagawa, Toru ; Tamura, Takayuki ; Tanaka, Takaaki ; Tanaka, Yasuo ; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T. ; Tashiro, Makoto S. ; Tawara, Yuzuru ; Terada, Yukikatsu ; Terashima, Yuichi ; Tombesi, Francesco ; Tomida, Hiroshi ; Tsuboi, Yohko ; Tsujimoto, Masahiro ; Tsunemi, Hiroshi ; Tsuru, Takeshi Go ; Uchida, Hiroyuki ; Uchiyama, Hideki ; Uchiyama, Yasunobu ; Ueda, Shutaro ; Ueda, Yoshihiro ; Uno, Shinichiro ; Urry, C. Megan ; Ursino, Eugenio ; Vries, Cor P.De ; Watanabe, Shin ; Werner, Norbert ; Wik, Daniel R. ; Wilkins, Dan R. ; Williams, Brian J. ; Yamada, Shinya ; Yamaguchi, Hiroya ; Yamaoka, Kazutaka ; Yamasaki, Noriko Y. ; Yamauchi, Makoto ; Yamauchi, Shigeo ; Yaqoob, Tahir ; Yatsu, Yoichi ; Yonetoku, Daisuke ; Zhuravleva, Irina ; Zoghbi, Abderahmen. / Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster. In: Nature. 2017 ; Vol. 551, No. 7681. pp. 478-480.
@article{87a25abb4a6041a7a286d9acd3fc1697,
title = "Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster",
abstract = "The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode. Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun, suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way. However, because the K-shell transition lines of chromium and manganese are weak and those of iron and nickel are very close in photon energy, high-resolution spectroscopy is required for an accurate determination of the abundances of these elements. Here we report observations of the Perseus cluster, with statistically significant detections of the resonance emission from chromium, manganese and nickel. Our measurements, combined with the latest atomic models, reveal that these elements have near-solar abundance ratios with respect to iron, in contrast to previous claims. Comparison between our results and modern nucleosynthesis calculations disfavours the hypothesis that type Ia supernova progenitors are exclusively white dwarfs with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit (about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun). The observed abundance pattern of the iron-peak elements can be explained by taking into account a combination of near- A nd sub-Chandrasekhar-mass type Ia supernova systems, adding to the mounting evidence that both progenitor types make a substantial contribution to cosmic chemical enrichment.",
author = "Felix Aharonian and Hiroki Akamatsu and Fumie Akimoto and Allen, {Steven W.} and Lorella Angelini and Marc Audard and Hisamitsu Awaki and Magnus Axelsson and Aya Bamba and Bautz, {Marshall W.} and Roger Blandford and Brenneman, {Laura W.} and Brown, {Gregory V.} and Esra Bulbul and Cackett, {Edward M.} and Maria Chernyakova and Chiao, {Meng P.} and Coppi, {Paolo S.} and Elisa Costantini and {De Plaa}, Jelle and {Den Herder}, {Jan Willem} and Chris Done and Tadayasu Dotani and Ken Ebisawa and Eckart, {Megan E.} and Teruaki Enoto and Yuichiro Ezoe and Fabian, {Andrew C.} and Carlo Ferrigno and Foster, {Adam R.} and Ryuichi Fujimoto and Yasushi Fukazawa and Akihiro Furuzawa and Massimiliano Galeazzi and Gallo, {Luigi C.} and Poshak Gandhi and Margherita Giustini and Andrea Goldwurm and Liyi Gu and Matteo Guainazzi and Yoshito Haba and Kouichi Hagino and Kenji Hamaguchi and Harrus, {Ilana M.} and Isamu Hatsukade and Katsuhiro Hayashi and Takayuki Hayashi and Kiyoshi Hayashida and Hiraga, {Junko S.} and Ann Hornschemeier and Akio Hoshino and Hughes, {John P.} and Yuto Ichinohe and Ryo Iizuka and Hajime Inoue and Yoshiyuki Inoue and Manabu Ishida and Kumi Ishikawa and Yoshitaka Ishisaki and Masachika Iwai and Jelle Kaastra and Tim Kallman and Tsuneyoshi Kamae and Jun Kataoka and Satoru Katsuda and Nobuyuki Kawai and Kelley, {Richard L.} and Kilbourne, {Caroline A.} and Takao Kitaguchi and Shunji Kitamoto and Tetsu Kitayama and Takayoshi Kohmura and Motohide Kokubun and Katsuji Koyama and Shu Koyama and Peter Kretschmar and Krimm, {Hans A.} and Aya Kubota and Hideyo Kunieda and Philippe Laurent and Lee, {Shiu Hang} and Leutenegger, {Maurice A.} and Olivier Limousine and Michael Loewenstein and Long, {Knox S.} and David Lumb and Greg Madejski and Yoshitomo Maeda and Daniel Maier and Kazuo Makishima and Maxim Markevitch and Hironori Matsumoto and Kyoko Matsushita and Dan McCammon and McNamara, {Brian R.} and Missagh Mehdipour and Miller, {Eric D.} and Miller, {Jon M.} and Shin Mineshige and Kazuhisa Mitsuda and Ikuyuki Mitsuishi and Takuya Miyazawa and Tsunefumi Mizuno and Hideyuki Mori and Koji Mori and Koji Mukai and Hiroshi Murakami and Mushotzky, {Richard F.} and Takao Nakagawa and Hiroshi Nakajima and Takeshi Nakamori and Shinya Nakashima and Kazuhiro Nakazawa and Nobukawa, {Kumiko K.} and Masayoshi Nobukawa and Hirofumi Noda and Hirokazu Odaka and Takaya Ohashi and Masanori Ohno and Takashi Okajima and Naomi Ota and Masanobu Ozaki and Frits Paerels and St{\'e}phane Paltani and Robert Petre and Ciro Pinto and Frederick, {S. Porter} and Katja Pottschmidt and Christopher, {S. Reynolds} and Samar Safi-Harb and Shinya Saito and Kazuhiro Sakai and Toru Sasaki and Goro Sato and Kosuke Sato and Rie Sato and Makoto Sawada and Norbert Schartel and Serlemitsos, {Peter J.} and Hiromi Seta and Megumi Shidatsu and Aurora Simionescu and Smith, {Randall K.} and Yang Soong and Lukasz Stawarz and Yasuharu Sugawara and Satoshi Sugita and Andrew Szymkowiak and Hiroyasu Tajima and Hiromitsu Takahashi and Tadayuki Takahashi and Shin Ichirotakeda and Yoh Takei and Toru Tamagawa and Takayuki Tamura and Takaaki Tanaka and Yasuo Tanaka and Tanaka, {Yasuyuki T.} and Tashiro, {Makoto S.} and Yuzuru Tawara and Yukikatsu Terada and Yuichi Terashima and Francesco Tombesi and Hiroshi Tomida and Yohko Tsuboi and Masahiro Tsujimoto and Hiroshi Tsunemi and Tsuru, {Takeshi Go} and Hiroyuki Uchida and Hideki Uchiyama and Yasunobu Uchiyama and Shutaro Ueda and Yoshihiro Ueda and Shinichiro Uno and Urry, {C. Megan} and Eugenio Ursino and Vries, {Cor P.De} and Shin Watanabe and Norbert Werner and Wik, {Daniel R.} and Wilkins, {Dan R.} and Williams, {Brian J.} and Shinya Yamada and Hiroya Yamaguchi and Kazutaka Yamaoka and Yamasaki, {Noriko Y.} and Makoto Yamauchi and Shigeo Yamauchi and Tahir Yaqoob and Yoichi Yatsu and Daisuke Yonetoku and Irina Zhuravleva and Abderahmen Zoghbi",
year = "2017",
month = "11",
day = "23",
doi = "10.1038/nature24301",
language = "English",
volume = "551",
pages = "478--480",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7681",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster

AU - Aharonian, Felix

AU - Akamatsu, Hiroki

AU - Akimoto, Fumie

AU - Allen, Steven W.

AU - Angelini, Lorella

AU - Audard, Marc

AU - Awaki, Hisamitsu

AU - Axelsson, Magnus

AU - Bamba, Aya

AU - Bautz, Marshall W.

AU - Blandford, Roger

AU - Brenneman, Laura W.

AU - Brown, Gregory V.

AU - Bulbul, Esra

AU - Cackett, Edward M.

AU - Chernyakova, Maria

AU - Chiao, Meng P.

AU - Coppi, Paolo S.

AU - Costantini, Elisa

AU - De Plaa, Jelle

AU - Den Herder, Jan Willem

AU - Done, Chris

AU - Dotani, Tadayasu

AU - Ebisawa, Ken

AU - Eckart, Megan E.

AU - Enoto, Teruaki

AU - Ezoe, Yuichiro

AU - Fabian, Andrew C.

AU - Ferrigno, Carlo

AU - Foster, Adam R.

AU - Fujimoto, Ryuichi

AU - Fukazawa, Yasushi

AU - Furuzawa, Akihiro

AU - Galeazzi, Massimiliano

AU - Gallo, Luigi C.

AU - Gandhi, Poshak

AU - Giustini, Margherita

AU - Goldwurm, Andrea

AU - Gu, Liyi

AU - Guainazzi, Matteo

AU - Haba, Yoshito

AU - Hagino, Kouichi

AU - Hamaguchi, Kenji

AU - Harrus, Ilana M.

AU - Hatsukade, Isamu

AU - Hayashi, Katsuhiro

AU - Hayashi, Takayuki

AU - Hayashida, Kiyoshi

AU - Hiraga, Junko S.

AU - Hornschemeier, Ann

AU - Hoshino, Akio

AU - Hughes, John P.

AU - Ichinohe, Yuto

AU - Iizuka, Ryo

AU - Inoue, Hajime

AU - Inoue, Yoshiyuki

AU - Ishida, Manabu

AU - Ishikawa, Kumi

AU - Ishisaki, Yoshitaka

AU - Iwai, Masachika

AU - Kaastra, Jelle

AU - Kallman, Tim

AU - Kamae, Tsuneyoshi

AU - Kataoka, Jun

AU - Katsuda, Satoru

AU - Kawai, Nobuyuki

AU - Kelley, Richard L.

AU - Kilbourne, Caroline A.

AU - Kitaguchi, Takao

AU - Kitamoto, Shunji

AU - Kitayama, Tetsu

AU - Kohmura, Takayoshi

AU - Kokubun, Motohide

AU - Koyama, Katsuji

AU - Koyama, Shu

AU - Kretschmar, Peter

AU - Krimm, Hans A.

AU - Kubota, Aya

AU - Kunieda, Hideyo

AU - Laurent, Philippe

AU - Lee, Shiu Hang

AU - Leutenegger, Maurice A.

AU - Limousine, Olivier

AU - Loewenstein, Michael

AU - Long, Knox S.

AU - Lumb, David

AU - Madejski, Greg

AU - Maeda, Yoshitomo

AU - Maier, Daniel

AU - Makishima, Kazuo

AU - Markevitch, Maxim

AU - Matsumoto, Hironori

AU - Matsushita, Kyoko

AU - McCammon, Dan

AU - McNamara, Brian R.

AU - Mehdipour, Missagh

AU - Miller, Eric D.

AU - Miller, Jon M.

AU - Mineshige, Shin

AU - Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

AU - Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki

AU - Miyazawa, Takuya

AU - Mizuno, Tsunefumi

AU - Mori, Hideyuki

AU - Mori, Koji

AU - Mukai, Koji

AU - Murakami, Hiroshi

AU - Mushotzky, Richard F.

AU - Nakagawa, Takao

AU - Nakajima, Hiroshi

AU - Nakamori, Takeshi

AU - Nakashima, Shinya

AU - Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

AU - Nobukawa, Kumiko K.

AU - Nobukawa, Masayoshi

AU - Noda, Hirofumi

AU - Odaka, Hirokazu

AU - Ohashi, Takaya

AU - Ohno, Masanori

AU - Okajima, Takashi

AU - Ota, Naomi

AU - Ozaki, Masanobu

AU - Paerels, Frits

AU - Paltani, Stéphane

AU - Petre, Robert

AU - Pinto, Ciro

AU - Frederick, S. Porter

AU - Pottschmidt, Katja

AU - Christopher, S. Reynolds

AU - Safi-Harb, Samar

AU - Saito, Shinya

AU - Sakai, Kazuhiro

AU - Sasaki, Toru

AU - Sato, Goro

AU - Sato, Kosuke

AU - Sato, Rie

AU - Sawada, Makoto

AU - Schartel, Norbert

AU - Serlemitsos, Peter J.

AU - Seta, Hiromi

AU - Shidatsu, Megumi

AU - Simionescu, Aurora

AU - Smith, Randall K.

AU - Soong, Yang

AU - Stawarz, Lukasz

AU - Sugawara, Yasuharu

AU - Sugita, Satoshi

AU - Szymkowiak, Andrew

AU - Tajima, Hiroyasu

AU - Takahashi, Hiromitsu

AU - Takahashi, Tadayuki

AU - Ichirotakeda, Shin

AU - Takei, Yoh

AU - Tamagawa, Toru

AU - Tamura, Takayuki

AU - Tanaka, Takaaki

AU - Tanaka, Yasuo

AU - Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.

AU - Tashiro, Makoto S.

AU - Tawara, Yuzuru

AU - Terada, Yukikatsu

AU - Terashima, Yuichi

AU - Tombesi, Francesco

AU - Tomida, Hiroshi

AU - Tsuboi, Yohko

AU - Tsujimoto, Masahiro

AU - Tsunemi, Hiroshi

AU - Tsuru, Takeshi Go

AU - Uchida, Hiroyuki

AU - Uchiyama, Hideki

AU - Uchiyama, Yasunobu

AU - Ueda, Shutaro

AU - Ueda, Yoshihiro

AU - Uno, Shinichiro

AU - Urry, C. Megan

AU - Ursino, Eugenio

AU - Vries, Cor P.De

AU - Watanabe, Shin

AU - Werner, Norbert

AU - Wik, Daniel R.

AU - Wilkins, Dan R.

AU - Williams, Brian J.

AU - Yamada, Shinya

AU - Yamaguchi, Hiroya

AU - Yamaoka, Kazutaka

AU - Yamasaki, Noriko Y.

AU - Yamauchi, Makoto

AU - Yamauchi, Shigeo

AU - Yaqoob, Tahir

AU - Yatsu, Yoichi

AU - Yonetoku, Daisuke

AU - Zhuravleva, Irina

AU - Zoghbi, Abderahmen

PY - 2017/11/23

Y1 - 2017/11/23

N2 - The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode. Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun, suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way. However, because the K-shell transition lines of chromium and manganese are weak and those of iron and nickel are very close in photon energy, high-resolution spectroscopy is required for an accurate determination of the abundances of these elements. Here we report observations of the Perseus cluster, with statistically significant detections of the resonance emission from chromium, manganese and nickel. Our measurements, combined with the latest atomic models, reveal that these elements have near-solar abundance ratios with respect to iron, in contrast to previous claims. Comparison between our results and modern nucleosynthesis calculations disfavours the hypothesis that type Ia supernova progenitors are exclusively white dwarfs with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit (about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun). The observed abundance pattern of the iron-peak elements can be explained by taking into account a combination of near- A nd sub-Chandrasekhar-mass type Ia supernova systems, adding to the mounting evidence that both progenitor types make a substantial contribution to cosmic chemical enrichment.

AB - The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode. Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun, suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way. However, because the K-shell transition lines of chromium and manganese are weak and those of iron and nickel are very close in photon energy, high-resolution spectroscopy is required for an accurate determination of the abundances of these elements. Here we report observations of the Perseus cluster, with statistically significant detections of the resonance emission from chromium, manganese and nickel. Our measurements, combined with the latest atomic models, reveal that these elements have near-solar abundance ratios with respect to iron, in contrast to previous claims. Comparison between our results and modern nucleosynthesis calculations disfavours the hypothesis that type Ia supernova progenitors are exclusively white dwarfs with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit (about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun). The observed abundance pattern of the iron-peak elements can be explained by taking into account a combination of near- A nd sub-Chandrasekhar-mass type Ia supernova systems, adding to the mounting evidence that both progenitor types make a substantial contribution to cosmic chemical enrichment.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85034843941&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85034843941&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature24301

DO - 10.1038/nature24301

M3 - Article

VL - 551

SP - 478

EP - 480

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7681

ER -