Strong connection between single-particle and density excitations in Bose–Einstein condensates

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3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Strong connection between the single-particle excitation and the collective excitation stands out as one of the features of Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). We discuss theoretically these single-particle and density excitations of BECs focusing on the exact properties of the one-body and two-body Green’s functions developed by Gavoret and Nozières. We also investigate these excitations by using the many-body approximation theory at nonzero temperatures. First, we revisited the earlier study presented by Gavoret and Nozières, involving the subsequent results given by Nepomnyashchii and Nepomnyashchii, in terms of the matrix formalism representation. This matrix formalism is an extension of the Nambu representation for the single-particle Green’s function of BECs to discuss the density and current response functions efficiently. We describe the exact low-energy properties of the correlation functions and the vertex functions, and discuss the correspondence of the spectra between the single-particle excitation and the density excitation in the low-energy and low-momentum limits at T = 0. After deriving the exact low-energy structures of the one-body and two-body Green’s functions, we develop a many-body approximation theory of BECs with making the use of the matrix formalism for describing the single-particle Green’s function and the density response function at nonzero temperatures. We show how the peaks of the single-particle spectral function and the density response function behave with an increasing temperature. Many-body effect on the single-particle spectral function and the density response function is included within a random phase approximation, where satellite structures emerge because of beyond-mean-field effects. Criticisms are also made on recent theories casting doubt upon the conventional wisdom of the BEC: the equivalence of the dispersion relations between the single-particle excitation and the collective excitation in the low-energy and low-momentum regime.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103010
JournalNew Journal of Physics
Volume22
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Oct
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bose–Einstein condensates
  • Collective excitation
  • Green’s function
  • Quasi-particle
  • Single-particle excitation
  • Superfluid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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