Time Required for Take-over from Automated to Manual Driving

Toshio Ito, Arata Takata, Kenta Oosawa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

8 Citations (Scopus)


Automation of vehicles can be expected to improve safety, comfort and efficiency, and is being developed in various countries. Introduction of automated driving can be ranked from 0 to 5 (0: no automation, 1: driver assistance, 2: partial automation, 3: conditional automation, 4: high automation, 5: full automation). Currently, feasible automation levels are considered to be levels 2 or 3, and human manual take-over from the automated system is needed when the automated system exceeds these levels. In this situation, time required for take-over is an important issue. This study focuses on describing driving simulator experimental results of time required for take-over. The experimental scenario is that the automated system finds an object ahead during automated driving on the highway, and issues a take-over request to the driver. The subject driver can be in the following driver situations: hands-on or hands-off the steering, and strong or weak distractions. In these situations, we examine two kinds of take-over time, which are 7 and 5 seconds. The results show all subjects complete take-over actions properly even if the required time is 5 seconds. In this paper, details of these results are described.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition
PublisherSAE International
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Apr 5
EventSAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition - Detroit, United States
Duration: 2016 Apr 122016 Apr 14


OtherSAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition
CountryUnited States

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Pollution
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • Cite this

    Ito, T., Takata, A., & Oosawa, K. (2016). Time Required for Take-over from Automated to Manual Driving. In SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition (April ed., Vol. 2016-April). SAE International. https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0158