Valorization of the chicken by-product waste with supercritical CO2 inactivation of microbes towards sustainable utilization

Muhammad Khalish Mohammad Ilias, Md Sohrab Hossain, Mark Harris Zuknik, Venugopal Balkakrishnan, Adel Al-Gheethi, Ayman A. Ghfar, Azham Zulkharnain, Ahmad Naim Ahmad Yahaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

There is an increasing concern on the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment. The existing practice of chicken by-product waste is to dispose in a landfill. Chicken by-product waste may contain antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Thus, the disposal of chicken by-product waste into the landfill leads to the release of antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the environment. In the present study, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) technology was utilized to sterilize the chicken by-product waste to ensure safe handling for the subsequent processing towards sustainable utilization of the waste by-product. In addition, the presence of bacteria in the chicken by-product waste and their antibiotic susceptibility were identified. The influence of the scCO2 sterilization on the inactivation of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chicken by-product waste was determined with varying pressure (8–40 MPa), temperature (30–80 °C), and treatment time (15–90 min). The experimental conditions of the scCO2 sterilization were optimized based on the maximum log reduction (logCFU/g) of bacteria in sterilized chicken by-product waste. The optimum experimental conditions for the complete inactivation of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sterilized chicken by-product waste were scCO2 pressure 18 MPa, temperature 60 °C, and treatment time 45 min. The sterilized chicken by-product waste contains about 50% fat. The findings of the present study would be useful to determine the sustainable utilization of chicken by-product waste with minimizing human health hazards and environmental pollution. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
JournalBiomass Conversion and Biorefinery
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  • Chicken by-product waste
  • Optimization
  • Response surface methodology
  • Supercritical CO sterilization
  • Sustainable utilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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