To enhance hard-tissue compatibility of Ti, galvanic current between titanium (Ti) and gold (Au) may be available. Prior to the design of medical devices with the capability to generate a galvanic current, it is necessary to understand the control mechanism. In this study, we first measured galvanic current between Ti and Au with various surface areas in Hanks' solution. The galvanic current increased immediately after connection of two electrodes, followed by an abrupt decrease and a steady state. The galvanic current varied with the combinations of Ti and Au areas. We, thereafter, evaluated the formation of calcium phosphate on Ti under a condition of applying simulated galvanic current. Surface characterization was revealed in which the calcium phosphate formation was enhanced accompanied by growth of Ti oxide layer under the galvanic current application. A similar result was observed on Ti with patterned Au coating without outer electric power. Therefore, galvanic current is useful to enhance hard-tissue compatibility, and this technique has potential for applications to metallic biomaterials.
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