Acylated anthocyanins are more stable than monomeric anthocyanins, but little is known about their physiological effects. We evaluated the hemodynamic effects of single intragastric doses of purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) anthocyanin (PCA) and two monomeric anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glycoside (C3G) and delphinidin 3-O-ruthenoside (D3R). PCA, C3G, or D3R was administered orally to rat and blood flow in the cremaster artery was measured for 60 min using a laser Doppler blood flow meter. After measurements, the aorta of the animal was removed and the extent of phosphorylation of aortic epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt were determined by western blotting. PCA (10 mg kg -1 ) or C3G (1 mg kg -1 ) significantly increased rat cremaster arteriole blood flow and phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt; D3G (1 mg kg -1 ) only slightly altered cremaster arteriole blood flow and did not affect the phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt in the aorta. These results suggest that hemodynamic alterations depend more on the chemical structure of anthocyanins, particularly the aglycon, than on the glycoside. In addition, increase of blood flow by a single oral dose of PCA was practically reduced with treatment of carvedilol (CR), a non-specific adrenaline blocker. Blood concentrations of cyanidin or its glycoside 15, 30, or 60 min after the administration of 10 mg kg -1 PCA were below the limit of detection. These hemodynamic changes may have been associated with an indirect adrenergic action induced following a single dose of PCA.
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