Despite progress in many areas, the concrete industry still confronts challenges when it comes to the topic of concrete sustainability. Several evaluation methods have been proposed in response to these challenges, but the lack of a holistic framework for sustainable concrete material remains. In this paper, a holistic indicator framework for concrete material sustainability evaluation is developed by aggregating and analyzing the multitude of sustainable concrete material indicators into a causal network that reveals the indicators' interrelationships. A novel component of this framework is the integration of the two global perspectives on sustainable development: the pillars of sustainability (environment, economy, society) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These sustainability perspectives provide the framework with clear context to underpin the concept of sustainable concrete. A demonstration study validated the framework's applicability in evaluating the sustainability of various concrete mixes. The results highlight the importance of integrating both sustainability perspectives in elucidating the trade-offs that exist between the facets of sustainability and the priority areas needing attention to enhance concrete sustainability. These are critical information in the need to balance the different facets of sustainability, and therefore support the decision-making strategies for concrete sustainability.
ASJC Scopus subject areas