This paper investigated the effect of various amounts of low-grade recycled aggregates in concrete containing mineral admixtures at three different water-binder ratios on mechanical and environmental performance. The balance between durability and environmental impact for a given strength level similar to normal-use concrete was also examined using analytic hierarchy process. Results showed that increasing the water-binder ratio and volume of recycled aggregates reduced compressive strength and increased air permeability and drying shrinkage relative to normal aggregates. However, compared to normal-use concrete similar or better performance could be achieved, which was attributed to improvement of low-grade recycled aggregate performance when combined with fly ash. Similarly, CO2 emissions and volume of raw materials were lower than the normal-use concrete for all mixes. Concrete mixes with low air permeability and low CO2 footprint had the best balance of durability and environmental impact, as decreasing raw material volume tended to more greatly reduce durability.
ASJC Scopus subject areas