The CALorimetric Electron Telescope CALET is collecting science data on the International Space Station since October 2015 with excellent and continuous performance. Energy is measured with a deep homogeneous calorimeter (1.2 nuclear interaction lengths, 27 radiation lengths) preceded by an imaging pre-shower (3 radiation lengths, 1mm granularity) providing tracking and 10-5 electron/proton discrimination. Two independent sub-systems identify the charge Z of the incident particle from proton to iron and above (Z<40). CALET measures the cosmic-ray electron + positron flux up to 20 TeV, gamma rays up to 10 TeV, and nuclei up to the PeV scale. In this paper, we report the on-orbit performance of the instrument and summarize the main results obtained during the first 5 years of operation, including the electron + positron energy spectrum and the individual spectra of protons, heavier nuclei and iron. Solar modulation and gamma-ray observations are also concisely reported, as well as transient phenomena and the search for gravitational wave counterparts.
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