This study reviews the operations in 18 lines of seven major urban railway operators in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area and empirically evaluates their efficiencies while incorporating financial performance and in-vehicle congestion. The data were collected from statistical sources publicly available in Japan, and they contain in-vehicle congestion rates, line lengths, number of stations, vehicle kilometers, number of passengers, passenger kilometers, operating revenues by railway line, and operating expenses by operator in 2017. The line-level efficiencies of the operational efficiency, cost efficiency, and revenue efficiency were analyzed using data envelopment analyses, and Tobit regression was applied to examine how in-vehicle congestion rates are associated with these efficiencies. The efficiency analysis results showed that incorporating the in-vehicle congestion rate into operational efficiency enables to reflect the quality-of-service of the railway operation into the efficiency scores. Moreover, higher in-vehicle congestion rate leads to a lower cost efficiency but a higher revenue efficiency. The possible measures to improve efficiencies were discussed as per the categories of lines.
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