Recent applications of decellularized tissue have included the use of hydrogels for injectable materials and three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting bioink for tissue regeneration. Microvascular formation is required for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to support cell growth and regeneration in tissues and organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the formation of capillary networks in decellularized extracellular matrix (d-ECM) hydrogels. The d-ECM hydrogels were obtained from the small intestine submucosa (SIS) and the urinary bladder matrix (UBM) after decellularizing with sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). The SDC d-ECM hydrogel gradually gelated, while the HHP d-ECM hydrogel immediately gelated. All d-ECM hydrogels had low matrix stiffness compared to that of the collagen hydrogel, according to a compression test. D-ECM hydrogels with various elastic moduli were obtained, irrespective of the decellularization method or tissue source. Microvascular-derived endothelial cells were seeded on d-ECM hydrogels. Few cells attached to the SDC d-ECM hydrogel with no network formation, while on the HHP d-ECM hydrogel, a capillary network structure formed between elongated cells. Long, branched networks formed on d-ECM hydrogels with lower matrix stiffness. This suggests that the capillary network structure that forms on d-ECM hydrogels is closely related to the matrix stiffness of the hydrogel.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry