The catalytic reaction of glucose oxidase (GOx) mediated by 3-(10-phenothiazyl)propionic acid (PT-PA) and phenothiazine-labeled poly(ethylene oxide) (PT-PEO1000) that are covalentiy bonded to Au(111) electrodes has been investigated. The PT-PA and PT-PEO1000 are reacted with 2-aminoethanethiol (AET), followed by the formation of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) onto the Au surface. The PT group immobilized on the SAM of AET acts as an effective mediator for the electron transfer (ET) between the electrode and the FAD center of freely diffusing GOx in solution. The ET rate constant estimated from the catalytic current using a newly derived equation is larger by 1 order of magnitude for the PT-PA-modified system (1.1 × 105 dm3 mol-1 s-1) than for the PT-PEO1000 system (1.4 × 104 dm3 mol-1 s-1). The order of the magnitude of the ET rate constant clearly contrasts with the GOx hybrid systems that we previously investigated (Anal. Chem. 2003, 75, 910-917), in which the presence of the PEO spacer enhances the ET reaction rate. The reduction in the apparent PT concentration at the electrode interface due to the high mobility of the PEO chain, leading to low efficiency in the formation of an enzyme-mediator complex, is a possible reason for the lower mediation ability of PT-PEO1000 than that of PT-PA for the ET between the FAD group and PT+ immobilized on the electrode. Inhibition of the penetration of GOx molecules into the monolayer and of the accessibility of some part of PT groups to GOx molecules could also be reasons for the lower mediation ability of PT-PEO1000 thickly modified on the electrode.
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