Energy matching strategy is verified as an effective method for significant improvement of evaporation rate in direct solar steam generation (DSSG). By adjusting the solid–liquid interface through bilayer structure, the water transport speed from reservoir to evaporation surface is controlled to reduce the required energy (RE) for closely matching with that of input energy (IE). The highest evaporation rate can reach up to 2.22 kg m−2 h−1 under one-sun illumination, which is improved by 40% through energy matching. A solar-to-vapor energy conversion efficiency of 93.2% is obtained. It is also highly effective in practical applications including desalination, sewage treatment, oil–water separation, and heavy metal ions treatment. This concept displays a balance between the energy needed for water waiting to be evaporated and the IE. It can inspire more ideas for researchers to accelerate the development of DSSG.
ASJC Scopus subject areas