Ion implantation causes the formation of nano-phases as well as radiation damage. “In-situ” observation in a TEM is a unique technique to clarify such phenomena. One example is Xe nanocrystals embedded in a metal matrix. HRTEM observations revealed the atomic structures and the motion of atoms in a Xe nanocrystal. Electron beam-induced deposition is another technique to fabricate nano-structures. Nanostructures having desired shape and size can be obtained. Metal atoms are deposited using focused electron beam irradiation under the presence of a small amount of precursor gas molecules on the substrate. The details of these ion and electron beam effects are reviewed.
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