Metallic miniature products have been highlighted as mini-/micro-structural components working as a precise mechanism, in dispensing systems, and in medical operations. In particular, the essential mechanical parts such as pipes and nozzles have strength and hardness sufﬁcient for ejecting viscous liquids, solders, and particles. A low-temperature plasma nitriding process was proposed as a surface treatment to improve the engineering durability of stainless steel mini-/micro-pipes and nozzles. Various analyses were performed to describe the inner nitriding process only, from the inner surface of pipes and nozzles to their depth in thickness. AISI316 pipes and AISI316/AISI304 nozzle specimens were used to demonstrate by plasma nitriding for 14.4 ks at 693 K that their inner surfaces had a hardness higher than 800 HV.
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