The morphology of ZnO nanostructures was controlled by the type of electrodes used, without chemical additives in the solution plasma process. Nanorod and nanosheet-type ZnO were synthesized using Zn and W electrodes, respectively. In the solution plasma process, the ZnO nanostructure can be fabricated because of the unique reaction between ions and radicals at the plasma/liquid interface. During this reaction, ions generated from the metal electrode influence the morphology of ZnO by adsorption on the (0 0 1) facet. Zn(OH)42− ions promoted crystal growth in the [0 0 1] direction, resulting in a rod structure. In contrast, the sheet structure was formed owing to the inhibition of growth in the [0 0 1] direction by WO42− ions.
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