Eleven carbazole (CAR)-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from seawater collected off the coast of Japan using two different media. Seven isolates were shown to be most closely related to the genera Erythrobacter, Hyphomonas, Sphingosinicella, Caulobacter, and Lysobacter. Meanwhile, strains OC3, OC6S, OC9, and OC11S showed low similarity to known bacteria, the closest relative being Kordiimonas gwangyangensis GW14-5 (90% similarity). Southern hybridization analysis revealed that only five isolates carried car genes similar to those reported in Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 (carCA10) or Sphingomonas sp. strain KA1 (carKA1). The isolates were subjected to GC-MS and the results indicated that these strains degrade CAR to anthranilic acid.
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