Lithium‑oxygen, −air, -CO2 are three typical types of Lithium-based batteries, which offer a promising, sustainable, and environment-friendly solution to construct carbon neutral society. Carbon-based cathodes provide active sites for mass and electronic transfer among Li, Li+, O2, Li2O2, LiO2. The synthesis methods of carbon cathode can affect the performance of Lithium-based battery. This review summarizes the fundamentals of carbon-based oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduced reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic reactions, and then explore a few key concerns on the interrelation between synthesis methods and electrocatalytic activities. Then, the most important tactics: defect engineering, heteroatom doping, and structure optimization for enhancement of electrocatalytic activity are presented. Finally, the most recent advances of carbon-based materials from dimensional views are also discussed. The review would provide insightful opportunities as well as the current challenges to accelerate the research and application on carbon-based materials for Lithium-based batteries.
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