Background: We aimed to discuss and compare reported adverse reactions and drug add-ons associated with elobixibat and lubiprostone use in chronic constipation treatment, as the safety of these drugs has not been well examined in post-marketing clinical settings. Research Design and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, using records of community pharmacies in Japan, we identified new users of elobixibat and lubiprostone. The Japan Pharmaceutical Association sent questionnaires regarding baseline and event data to community pharmacists. The incidence of events and hazard ratio (HR) associated with the study drugs were evaluated. Results: New users of elobixibat (n = 979) and lubiprostone (n = 829) were identified (mean age: 74 and 77 years; females: 59% and 53%, respectively). Although the crude risk ratio of adverse events for elobixibat was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.63–0.99), there was no significant difference in the HR for any of the common events, including drug add-ons (n ≥ 5), compared with those for lubiprostone. Conclusion: No new safety concerns have been raised in relation to elobixibat and lubiprostone use for treating chronic constipation, although the HR of different events varied. Further larger-scale study is needed as the estimates for events of small numbers were unstable.
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