Currently, there is no research and few valid experiments of pile caps. And shear failure mechanism of a pile, exterior column and foundation beam and pile caps in RC structure is not resolved yet under bi-lateral loading. Therefore, a performance evaluation method based on mechanical behaviour for pile caps has not been established. First, the fracture type was specified from the experimental results. Secondary, the ultimate strength formula of the pile cap was proposed based on the previous experimental results. It is a theoretical formula based on the truss-arch theory. It was confirmed that this formula can accurately evaluate the ultimate strength of the pile cap.