Although decisions or inferences we make based on test scores depend both on characteristics of test-takers and of testing situations, little research has been undertaken on the effects of these characteristics on test performance (e.g., Alderson and Banerjee, 2002). This study focuses on one of the personal characteristics of test-takers, namely test anxiety, and investigates the effects of test anxiety on listening test performance. Previous research in second language studies has suffered from the following five limitations, all of which were addressed in the current study: (a) no control of measurement errors, (b) insufficient validation of questionnaires, (c) little attention to the effects of test anxiety on test performance, (d) too small a number of questionnaire items, and (e) lack of attention to the effects of test anxiety in listening. Participants took a listening performance test, and answered two questionnaires designed to measure test anxiety. Results based on structural equation modeling show that test anxiety does not affect listening test performance. The results support [Aida, Y., 1994. Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope's construct of foreign language anxiety: the case of students of Japanese. The Modern Language Journal 78, 155-168.] and [MacIntyre, P.D., Gardner, R.C., 1989. Anxiety and second-language learning: toward a theoretical clarification. Language Learning 39, 251-275.], and also suggest that in foreign language anxiety [Horwitz, E.K., Horwitz, M.B., Cope, J., 1986. Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal 70, 125-132.], test anxiety seems to work differently compared with communication apprehension and fear of negative evaluation.
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