Bacterial cells respond to monoamine compounds, such as tyramine, dopamine, octopamine, or norepinephrine, and induce the syntheses of tyramine oxidase encoded by tynA and monoamine oxidase encoded by maoA. These monoamine compounds also derepress the synthesis of atsA-specified arylsulfatase that is repressed by sulfur compounds. These complex mechanisms of regulons regulated by monoamine and sulfur compounds has been analyzed by cloning and characterization of genes that are involved in the repression and derepression of the synthesis of arylsulfatase. The atsA gene forms an operon with the atsB gene, which encodes an activator of the expression of atsA. The negative regulator gene for arylsulfatase was found to code for dihydrofolate reductase (folA). The maoA gene forms an operon with the maoC gene, which has similarity to a dehydrogenase involved in the tyramine metabolism. The moaF gene encoding a 30-kDa protein, which is induced by tyramine, also forms an operon with the moaE gene. Finally, the moaR gene, which is induced by monoamine, was found to play a central role in the positive regulation of the expression of the monoamine regulon (moa) including the atsBA, maoCA, moaEF, and tyn operons. The moaR expression is subject to autogenous regulation and to cAMP-CRP control. The MoaR protein has a helix-turn-helix motif in its C terminus. Thus, the MoaR protein probably regulates the operons by binding to the regulatory region of the moa regulon.
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