The anatomical design of the human foot is considered to facilitate generation of bipedal walking. However, how the morphology and structure of the human foot actually contribute to generation of bipedal walking remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the three-dimensional kinematics of the foot bones under a weight-bearing condition using cadaver specimens, to characterize the innate mobility of the human foot inherently prescribed in its morphology and structure. Five cadaver feet were axially loaded up to 588N (60 kgf), and radiographic images were captured using a biplane X-ray fluoroscopy system. The present study demonstrated that the talus is medioinferiorly translated and internally rotated as the calcaneus is everted owing to axial loading, causing internal rotation of the tibia and flattening of the medial longitudinal arch in the foot. Furthermore, as the talus is internally rotated, the talar head moves medially with respect to the navicular, inducing external rotation of the navicular and metatarsals. Under axial loading, the cuboid is everted simultaneously with the calcaneus owing to the osseous locking mechanism in the calcaneocuboid joint. Such detailed descriptions about the innate mobility of the human foot will contribute to clarifying functional adaptation and pathogenic mechanisms of the human foot.
ASJC Scopus subject areas