The triphenyltin (TPT)-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis CNR15 produces extracellular yellow substances to degrade TPT. Three substances (F-I, F-IIa, and F-IIb) were purified, and their structural and catalytic properties were characterized. The primary structure of F-I was established using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques; the structure was identical to that of suc-pyoverdine from P. chlororaphis ATCC 9446, which is a peptide siderophore produced by fluorescent pseudomonads. Spectral and isoelectric-focusing analyses revealed that F-IIa and F-IIb were also pyoverdines, differing only in the acyl substituent attached to the chromophore part of F-I. Furthermore, we found that the fluorescent pseudomonads producing pyoverdines structurally different from F-I showed TPT degradation activity in the solid extracts of their culture supernatants. F-I and F-IIa degraded TPT to monophenyltin via diphenyltin (DPT) and degraded DPT and dibutyltin to monophenyltin and monobutyltin, respectively. The total amount of organotin metabolites produced by TPT degradation was nearly equivalent to that of the F-I added to the reaction mixture, whereas DPT degradation was not influenced by monophenyltin production. The TPT degradation activity of F-I was remarkably inhibited by the addition of metal ions chelated with pyoverdine. On the other hand, the activity of DPT was increased 13- and 8-fold by the addition of Cu2+ and Sn4+, respectively. These results suggest that metal-chelating ligands common to pyoverdines may play important roles in the Sn-C cleavage of organotin compounds in both the metal-free and metal-complexed states.
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