We developed a gas-imaging system (sniff-cam) for gaseous ethanol (EtOH) with improved sensitivity. The sniff-cam was applied to measure the extremely low concentration distribution of breath EtOH without the consumption of alcohol, which is related to the activity of the oral or gut bacterial flora. A ring-type ultraviolet-light-emitting diode was mounted around a camera lens as an excitation light source, which enabled simultaneous excitation and imaging of the fluorescence. In the EtOH sniff-cam, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was used to catalyze the redox reaction between EtOH and the oxidized form of NAD (NAD+). Upon application of gaseous EtOH to the ADH-immobilized mesh that was soaked in an NAD+ solution and placed in front of the camera, NADH was produced through an ADH-mediated reaction. NADH expresses fluorescence at an emission wavelength of 490 nm and excitation wavelength of 340 nm. Thus, the concentration distribution of EtOH was visualized by measuring the distribution of the fluorescence light intensity from NADH on the ADH-immobilized mesh surface. First, a comparison of image analysis methods based on the red-green-blue color (RGB) images and the optimization of the buffer pH and NAD+ solution concentration was performed. The new sniff-cam showed a 25-fold greater sensitivity and broader dynamic range (20.6-300000 ppb) in comparison to those of the previously fabricated sniff-cam. Finally, we measured the concentration distribution of breath EtOH without alcohol consumption using the improved sniff-cam and obtained a value of 116.2 ± 35.7 ppb (n = 10).
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