A simulation model was developed to better understand the mechanisms of brain injuries in sports. A three-dimensional model comprising approximately 1.22 million elements was constructed from cranial computed tomography images of adult male volunteers by the voxel method. To simulate contact sports that permit actions such as tackling, a sinusoidal wave with duration of 10 ms and maximum acceleration of 2000 m/s2 was applied to the lowest point of the model to apply rotational acceleration to the head from different directions. The von Mises stress was then observed at five points in the coronal plane of the brain: cingulate gyrus (CG), corpus callosum (CC), brain stem (BS), lateral temporal lobe (LT), and medial temporal lobe (MT). LS-DYNA universal finite element analysis software with explicit time integration was used for the analysis. Concentrations of stress started to appear in the CC and BS at 10 ms post-impact, after which they also became evident in the CG and MT. The maximum changes in stress at each location occurred 10–15 ms post-impact. The von Mises stress was 9–14 kPa in the CG, 8–24 kPa in the CC, 12–24 kPa in the BS, 7–12 kPa in the LT, and 12–18 kPa in the MT. The highest stress in every part of the brain occurred after lateral impact, followed by oblique impact and sagittal impact. Such simulations may help elucidate the mechanisms of brain injuries in sports and help develop measures to prevent chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
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